Members of the Achaemenid royal bodyguard, from a bas-relief at Persepolis The Islamic revolution in brought a sudden end to the rule of the Pahlavi dynasty, which for fifty years had been identified with the attempt to modernize and Westernize Iran. The Revolution replaced the monarchy with an Islamic republic and a secular state with a quasi-theocracy.
It is one of the most frequently cited works in the social sciences as it is a collection of theories and insights within structural — functional paradigm. Merton studied under Talcott Parsons at Harvard and later became professor at Columbia.
In this work consisting of almost pages, the author develops a theory of deviant behavior linked to various types of social adaptations. Merton rejects the idea of grand theories for the discipline of sociology and introduces the notion of middle range theories falling between grand theories on one hand and narrow, empirical observation on the other.
Like Durkheim, he focuses on objective facts and attempts to delineate objective consequences that are observable from subjective dispositions.
He distinguishes latent functions from manifest functions based on functional analysis.
While both manifest and latent functions have objective consequences for the social system, the former are intended or recognized, the latter are not. Evidently, of all theorists of social structure, Merton perhaps made the greatest impact on empirical research.
Part I deals with Theoretical Sociology, its history and systematics. Manifest and Latent Functions p. Local and Cosmopolitan Influentials p.
In the first part, Merton makes at least two important useful contributions in the field of sociology — the theories of the middle range and the manifest and latent functions.
He identifies two unacceptable trends within sociology that are narrow or radical empiricism focused just to collection of data without theorizing and abstract theorizing and consequently recommends sociological theories of the middle range as a solution.
The introduction of Manifest and Latent functions in chapter III is designed to improve functional analysis.
Merton further discusses the relationship between theory and empirical research and their intimate links at length. Merton cautions against confusing sociological theory with five scientific activities including methodology, general sociological orientations, concepts, interpretations and statements of uniformities and recommends that these activities need to be distinguished from one another.
Merton analyzes sociological theory the function of which is to unify disparate empirical findings. In the discussion of social goals and anomie in chapter 6, Merton identifies causes of dysfunctions one among which is the conflict between cultural goals and institutional norms.
Some of the other landmark contributions that Merton makes in this work include contributions to the theory of reference group behavior and the concept of relative deprivation and self fulfilling prophecy.
The concept of relative deprivation is related to the concept of reference group behavior in that the concept of relative deprivation is helpful in clarifying what according to Merton is counter intuitive, yet in the absence of a theory, according to Merton, concept alone cannot explain a phenomenon.
The theory of reference group therefore has greater explanatory value in understanding the notion of relative deprivation.
|PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION||Copyright by James Pritchett. Originally we had in mind what you might call an imaginary beauty, a process of basic emptiness with just a few things arising in it.|
In other words, it is a false definition of the situation attracting a response that makes the originally false conception real in outcome. S society has come to share certain characteristics with the European societies where the discipline originally developed with the consequence that sociology of knowledge has moved from periphery to the center of attention.A Manifesto Against the Enemies of Modernity.
by James A. Lindsay and Helen Pluckrose; Posted on August 22, February 2, ; This document is very long and detailed so a brief bulleted summary is provided below for those who don’t have the hour it takes for a careful read.
JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources. This essay was written for the catalog of the exhibition “John Cage and Experimental Art: The Anarchy of Silence” at the Museu d’Art Contemporani de Barcelona. Continuity and Change over Time Essay: India from CE to CE Things that stayed the same in India from CE to CE were the Gupta rule, the caste system, Hinduism, scientific advances, and trade.
Things that changed during this period were the fall in popularity of Buddhism, the decline in Silk Road trade, and the fall of the Gupta. ONE The Doctrine of the Separation of Powers and Institutional Theory. The history of Western political thought portrays the development and elaboration of a set of values—justice, liberty, equality, and the sanctity of property—the implications of which have been examined and debated down through the centuries; but just as important is the history of the debates about the institutional.
This response essay explores some of the key areas of agreement and disagreement between two recent articles on Cold War-era assessments of the Soviet economy.