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The social phenomena discussed in this series of essays all center around the problem of individuals in groups faced with the choice of doing what is best for themselves or what is best for the group.
Instances of the phenomena are called by many different names: Unfortunately, the academic programs that cover these various manifestations of the "individual vs. You will not find the "Social Dilemma" department at any university.
In particular, some universities now offer an advanced degree specializing in what is called Public Choice Theory, e. Self introduction paragraph Choice Theory is directed toward the study of politics based on ecomonic principles.
I would think you would be immediately puzzled by this, since most universities already have a Political Science department. The problem is that until Public Choice Theory came along, universities did not teach the way politics actually functions but, instead, taught the way it should work ideally or the way they wished it would work.
This practice of teaching what should be normative theory rather than what is positive theory is fairly common at universities and continues to this day at most universities, in politics as well as other disciplines.
Fortunately, if you look carefully, you can find some universities that teach the facts about politics, to the best of our abilities to understand it, and that discipline is called Public Choice.
I should point out that Public Choice is actually more general than just politics, but that is its main emphasis. Let us examine various aspects of the theory. Politicians do not devote their lives for your and my benefits anymore than McDonalds does.
Strangely, however, many people think so -- including university professors that teach politics and philosophy. The most important contribution of Public Choice Theory is that it recognizes that politicians are motivated by self interest -- just like you and me. In fact, more so than you and me! If that is so, and it is, then our expectations of politicians changes dramatically.
A politician's self interest is far more serious than yours and mine for their self interest actions can be disastrous for the rest of us -- such as sending thousands of young people to prison or to be killed in a pointless war, just to improve their political situation.
One point worth noting here is that the Founding Fathers of the U. They did a good job and the fact that we are having so much trouble with our government today results from our losing sight of the reality that politicians are self-interested and the public not enforcing the laws the Founding Fathers created.
Analysts of the school apply the logic of microeconomics to politics and generally find that whereas self-interest leads to benign results in the marketplace, it produces nothing but pathology in political decisions. These pathological patterns represent different kinds of "free-riding" and "rent-seeking" by voters, bureaucrats, politicians, and recipients of public funds.
Coalitions of voters seeking special advantage from the state join together to get favorable legislation enacted.
Rather than being particularly needy, these groups are likely to be those whose big stake in a benefit arouses them to more effective action than is taken by the taxpayers at large over whom the costs are spread. In general, individuals with "concentrated" interests in increased expenditure take a "free ride" on those with "diffuse" interests in lower taxes.
Similarly, the managers of the "bureaucratic firms" seek to maximize budgets, and thereby to obtain greater power, larger salaries, and other perquisites.
Budget maximization results in higher government spending overall, inefficient allocation among government agencies, and inefficient production within them.
In addition, when government agencies give out grants, the potential grantees expend resources in lobbying up to the value of the grants--an instance of the more general "political dissipation of value" resulting from the scramble for political favors and jobs.
It is the behaviour of public sector bureaucrats which is at the heart of public choice theory. While they are supposed to work in the public interest, putting into practice the policies of government as efficiently and effectively as possible, public choice theorists see bureaucrats as self- interested utility-maximizers, motivated by such factors as: Institute of Economic Affairs, At the heart of all public choice theories then is the notion that an official at any level, be they in the public or private sector, "acts at least partly in his own self- interest, and some officials are motivated solely by their own self-interest.
Little, Brown and Company, For Downs, broader motivations such as pride in performance, loyalty to a programme, department or government, and a wish to best serve their fellow citizens may also affect a bureaucrat's behaviour, and the level to which self-interest plays a role in decisions is different for each of five bureaucratic personality types that he identifies.
For Niskanen, self- interest is the sole motivator. The realization that politicians and government employees are driven by self interest is an extremely serious conclusion. The question immediately comes to mind, "How far will they go?Happiness and the Art of Being: An introduction to the philosophy and practice of the spiritual teachings of Bhagavan Sri Ramana (Second Edition) [Michael James] on barnweddingvt.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
Happiness is our true nature, our essential being. The transient happiness that we seem to derive from external experiences actually arises only from within ourself. The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus.
How to Write a Speech Introducing Yourself. In this Article: Article Summary Sample Speeches Preparing Your Speech Revising and Practicing Your Speech Planning Your Speech Delivering Your Speech Community Q&A First impressions have a big impact on how others perceive you, so how you introduce yourself to others is extremely important.
The principle purpose of the introduction is to present your position (this is also known as the "thesis" or "argument") on the issue at hand but effective introductory paragraphs are so much more than that. Get acquainted with students and introduce the 5-paragraph essay structure.
If used at the start of the year, it provides an early assessment of skills. An easy topic for an essay any time and can be used for preparation for standardized writing tests.4/5(13).
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