Research paper paper

Kimuyu The emergence of computerized medical imaging in early s, which merged with digital technology in the s, was celebrated as a major breakthrough in three-dimensional 3D medicine. The study explored the suitability of the Direct Linear Transformation as a method for the determination of 3D coordinates of targeted points from multiple images acquired with the Statscan X-ray system and optimization of the scan range. This investigation was carried out as a first step towards the development of a method to determine the accurate positions of points on or inside the human body.

Research paper paper

Ukranian Translation In logic, we often refer to the two broad methods of reasoning as the deductive and inductive approaches.

Deductive reasoning works from the more general to the more specific.

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Sometimes this is informally called a "top-down" approach. We might begin with thinking up a theory about our topic of interest.

Research paper paper

We then narrow that down into more specific hypotheses that we can test. We narrow down even further when we collect observations to address the hypotheses.

This ultimately leads us to be able to test the hypotheses with specific data -- a confirmation or not of our original theories.

Inductive reasoning works the other way, moving from specific observations to broader generalizations and theories. Informally, we sometimes call this a "bottom up" approach please note that it's "bottom up" and not "bottoms up" which is the kind of thing the bartender says to customers when he's trying to close for the night!

In inductive reasoning, we begin with specific observations and measures, begin to detect patterns and regularities, formulate some tentative hypotheses that we can explore, and finally end up developing some general conclusions or theories. These two methods of reasoning have a very different "feel" to them when you're conducting research.

Inductive reasoning, by its very nature, is more open-ended and exploratory, especially at the beginning. Deductive reasoning is more narrow in nature and is concerned with testing or confirming hypotheses.

Even though a particular study may look like it's purely deductive e. In fact, it doesn't take a rocket scientist to see that we could assemble the two graphs above into a single circular one that continually cycles from theories down to observations and back up again to theories.

Even in the most constrained experiment, the researchers may observe patterns in the data that lead them to develop new theories.Volume 6, No. 2, Art. 43 – May Participant Observation as a Data Collection Method.

Barbara B. Kawulich. Abstract: Observation, particularly participant observation, has been used in a variety of disciplines as a tool for collecting data about people, processes, and cultures in qualitative paper provides a look at various definitions of participant observation, the.

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out-of-order i.e., they look ahead and schedule subse-quent operations to idle execution units of the core. How-ever, such operations often have unwanted side-effects. A research paper involves surveying a field of knowledge in order to find the best possible information in that field.

And that survey can be orderly and focused, if you know how to approach it. Don't worry--you won't get lost in a sea of sources. Writing a Research Paper. This page lists some of the stages involved in writing a library-based research paper.

Although this list suggests that there is a simple, linear process to writing such a paper, the actual process of writing a research paper is often a messy and recursive one, so please use this outline as a flexible guide.

How to Write a Research Paper (with Sample Research Papers)