What is the Precision Medicine Initiative?
The innate and adaptive immune systems Created: December 7, ; Last Update: August 4, ; Next update: The immune system rests on two major pillars: Both systems work closely together and take on different tasks.
Defense cells in the tissue Both parts of the immune system work on different levels: Firstly, there are special defense cells in the different tissues that are directly involved in eliminating pathogens germs.
These cells belong to the so-called cellular defense. Defense cells in the blood and other fluids Secondly, both the innate and the adaptive immune system also need several soluble substances found in blood and other body fluids.
These are mainly proteins like enzymes, antibodies and short amino acid chains. These substances belong to the humoral defense from the Latin humor meaning: So both parts of the immune system — the innate and the adaptive — use cellular and humoral defense strategies.
Fast and broadly effective The strength of the innate, general defense is to be able to take action very quickly. It makes sure, for example that bacteria that have entered the skin through a small wound are detected and partly destroyed on the spot within a few hours.
As the innate immune response is not specialized for specific pathogens, it does not need a long start-up phase. Because of this broad effect, it is only capable to a certain degree of stopping germs from entering and spreading in the body. The innate defense consists of several elements: Skin and mucous membranes All external and internal surfaces of the human body are a key element of the innate immune system.
The closed surface of the skin and of all mucous membranes already forms a mechanical barrier for pathogens, which prevents them from entering. Additionally, chemical substances like acid, enzymes or mucus prevent the bacteria or viruses from gaining a foothold. Movements created, for example, by hair-like structures in the bronchi cilia or by bowel muscles stop germs from settling in the body.
Tear fluid, sweat, or urine rinsing the urinary organs all have a similar effect. Protection from the inside: Inflammatory cells move to the site of infection, or defense cells that are already there are activated.
Soluble protein substances of the complement system see below are activated, too, and help to defend the body.How Big Data Analytics Underpins Every Healthcare Trend Big data analytics is fueling the healthcare industry's most exciting trends, including precision medicine, predictive analytics, and machine learning.
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