This position was contested by the rival Tayichi'ud clan, who descended directly from Ambaghai. When the Tatars grew too powerful afterthe Jin switched their support from the Tatars to the Keraites.
His own father was poisoned by Tatars. He also inherited feuds among the ruling clans of All the Mongols and a feud with the powerful Merkit Mergid tribe, from whom his father had stolen his mother.
His family fell on bad times, and power among the Mongols passed to other clans. Even in such apparently primitive practices as camp raiding and horse thieving, he skillfully used ancient customs: Later the equivalent Mongol word dalai was applied to the supreme lama of Tibet.
Previous nomads had invaded China, but none had yet ruled the whole of it, chiefly because they had invaded prematurely, leaving other nomads on their flanks and in their rear. His first move was to bring under control the major tribal groups to the west of him in Mongolia, the Naiman and Kereit Kerait with whom he had been alternately in alliance and rivalry, as well as the tribes fringing the northern Mongolia-Siberia frontier.
He then turned toward the eastern half of northern China then ruled by the Jin dynastysouth almost to the Yangtze River Chang Jiang. In the northwestern corner of China and the western extension of Inner Mongolia there was a small state, that of the Xi Western Xia.
Its rulers were Tangut from Tibet, and under them there Introduction to genghis khan Turkish and Sogdian merchants who exploited the caravan trade; the cultivators of the oases were Turks and Chinese. China south of the Yangtze was ruled by the Nan Southern Song dynasty — Although they had lost North China, the Nan Song were expanding southward toward Indochina, bringing rich Introduction to genghis khan land under cultivation.
Among all these states there was an interplay of diplomacy, alliances made and broken, and open warfare. Between and the armies of Genghis Khan probed deep into North China. Genghis Khan made good use of the Khitan in northern and northeastern China, whose Liao dynasty the Jin had overthrown and who were now discontented subjects of the Jin.
In the Jin capital Zhongdu modern Beijingfrom which the Jin emperor had withdrawn southward, was taken and sacked. Realizing, however, that it was premature to commit his main strength to the conquest of China, Genghis Khan withdrew to Mongolia, leaving one of his best generals, Mugali, to ravage and weaken the country.
He himself turned westward. This situation made it easy for the Mongols to defeat him. The Mongol general Jebe proclaimed freedom of religion and forbade massacre and plunder.
This policy indicates that the Mongols did not massacre out of sheer savagery but only when they thought it necessary to break the power of an opponent. This gave him an alternative to China, and it also secured him against the danger of any other nomadic power organizing, on his flank and rear, a military striking force backed by agricultural and urban resources.
With this task accomplished, he turned back toward China, leaving further campaigning into Russia and the eastern fringes of Europe to his generals and sons. He would not, however, commit his main forces in China until he had dealt with the wealthy Tangut state of Xi Xiaand it was on this successful campaign in that he died.
The successor states of the Mongol empire Genghis Khan had already dealt with the problem of succession. Each of his four sons was to hold a vassal kingdom.
The youngest, Toluiinherited the ancient Mongol homeland of eastern Mongolia. The Yuan Mongol empire c. These dispositions made skillful use of ancient traditions. It was the custom among prosperous families that the eldest son, on reaching manhood, was given a wife and his share of the future inheritance.
He then moved away and set up his own camp, independent but still allied to his family. With this first division, further fission was inevitable. In this khanate the Mongols were greatly outnumbered by Turks ; the Turkish language soon displaced Mongol, and Islam became the prevailing religion.
Because its reservoir of nomad power was in the Kipchak Steppe, the Golden Horde is sometimes known as the Kipchak khanate. By its methods of collecting taxes and tribute, it contributed to the rise of the grand dukes of Muscovy, and it was eventually an alliance led by Moscow that broke the power of the Mongols by then more frequently called Tatarsat the Battle of Kulikovo in The Golden Horde was still able to take and sack Moscow two years later, but its power soon disintegrated—an important factor being attacks by Timur Tamerlanecoming from Turkistan.
On the other hand, the Il-Khans the title itself implies subordination accepted and supported the authority of the great khans. Like the Golden Horde, again, the house of Chagatai controlled wide pastures and therefore retained a strong nomadic base, while the Il-Khans, like the great khans especially after Kublai [Khubilai] Khan moved his capital into China and founded the Yuan [Mongol] dynasty therewere directly affected by the urban influences of an old, highly developed civilization with a rich literary tradition.
As in China, this situation led rather rapidly to the passage of real administrative control from Mongol hands into the hands of their subjects. A major change then occurred in the succession. He himself campaigned deep into southwestern China and there died of a fever in Genghis Khan, or Ghengis Khan as he is more widely known, was born about the year to a Mongol chieftain, Yesugei, and his wife.
He was born with the name of . Genghis Khan as portrayed in a 14th-century Yuan era album; the original version was in black and white. Original size is 47 cm wide and cm high. Paint and ink on silk. Now located in the National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan.
Genghis Khan () was the first ruler of the Mongol Empire, uniting a number of nomadic tribes to create an enormous empire. He was known for his ferocity in warfare, sometimes putting whole populations of conquered lands to the sword.
Introduction. Genghis Khan is known for uniting the nomadic Mongol tribes and establishing the largest contiguous empire in history. Genghis Khan died in The Mongol army led by Genghis Khan subjugated more lands and people in twenty-five years than the Romans did in four hundred.
In nearly every country the Mongols conquered, they brought an unprecedented rise in cultural communication, expanded trade, and a blossoming of civilization.
The Mongols Page Two. Founding of the Mongol Empire by: Henry Howorth. Genghis Khan. The Yuan. Akbar and India. Mongols in China (Marco Polo) The Mongols.