Introduction to bioethics

Preliminary Distinctions Rapid developments in the natural sciences and technology including biotechnology have greatly facilitated better living conditions and increased the standard of living of people worldwide. On the other hand, there are undesirable consequences, such as nuclear waste, water and air pollution, the clearing of tropical forests, and large-scale livestock farming, as well as particular innovations such as gene technology and cloning, which have caused qualms and even fears concerning the future of humankind.

Introduction to bioethics

Back to Top Ethics or Moral Philosophy is concerned with questions of how people ought to act, and the search for a definition of right conduct identified as the one causing the greatest good and the good life in the sense of a life worth living or a life that is satisfying or happy.

The word "ethics" is derived from the Greek "ethos" meaning "custom" or "habit". Ethics differs from morals and morality in that ethics denotes the theory of right action and the greater good, while morals indicate their practice.

It asks questions like "How should people act? See below for more discussion of these categories. He asserted that people will naturally do what is good provided that they know what is right, and that evil or bad actions are purely the result of ignorance: So, in essence, he considered self-knowledge and self-awareness to be the essential good, because the truly wise i.

According to Aristotle"Nature does nothing in vain", so it is only when a person acts in accordance with their nature and thereby realizes their full potential, that they will do good and therefore be content in life. He encouraged moderation in all things, the extremes being degraded and immoral, e.

Virtue, for Aristotledenotes doing the right thing to the right person at the right time to the proper extent in the correct fashion and for the right reason - something of a tall order. Cynicism is an ancient doctrine best exemplified by the Greek philosopher Diogenes of Sinopewho lived in a tub on the streets of Athens.

He taught that a life lived according to Nature was better than one that conformed to convention, and that a simple life is essential to virtue and happiness. As a moral teacher, Diogenes emphasized detachment from many of those things conventionally considered "good". Hedonism posits that the principal ethic is maximizing pleasure and minimizing pain.


This may range from those advocating self-gratification regardless of the pain and expense to others and with no thought for the future Cyrenaic Hedonismto those who believe that the most ethical pursuit maximizes pleasure and happiness for the most people. Somewhere in the middle of this continuum, Epicureanism observed that indiscriminate indulgence sometimes results in negative consequences, such as pain and fear, which are to be avoided.

According to Epictetusdifficult problems in life should not be avoided, but rather embraced as spiritual exercises needed for the health of the spirit. Pyrrhothe founding figure of Pyrrhonian Skepticismtaught that one cannot rationally decide between what is good and what is bad although, generally speaking, self-interest is the primary motive of human behavior, and he was disinclined to rely upon sincerity, virtue or Altruism as motivations.

Humanismwith its emphasis on the dignity and worth of all people and their ability to determine right and wrong purely by appeal to universal human qualities especially rationalitycan be traced back to ThalesXenophanes of Colophon - B. These early Greek thinkers were all instrumental in the move away from a spiritual morality based on the supernatural, and the development of a more humanistic freethought the view that beliefs should be formed on the basis of science and logic, and not be influenced by emotion, authority, tradition or dogma.

Normative Ethics Back to Top Normative Ethics or Prescriptive Ethics is the branch of ethics concerned with establishing how things should or ought to be, how to value them, which things are good or bad, and which actions are right or wrong.

It attempts to develop a set of rules governing human conduct, or a set of norms for action. Normative ethical theories are usually split into three main categories: Consequentialism, Deontology and Virtue Ethics: Thus, a morally right action is one that produces a good outcome or consequence.Bioethics, Medical, Health, drug list, medical reference, Sports Medicine, Exercise, Strength Training, Cyber-Abuse, Cyberbulling, School Crisis Guide, digital.

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3 fact that these policies have produced nothing but escalation, not only of use, but of harm, there has been no move to reverse them. As an educational policy, “harm minimization” is defined as teaching safe use of drugs -. Biomedicine and Beatitude: An Introduction to Catholic Bioethics (Catholic Moral Thought) [Nicanor Pier Giorgio Austriaco] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.

*Engages contemporary moral questions raised by biology and medicine from a sound Catholic perspective* How are the patient. Introduction to Bioethics, Second Edition is primarily aimed at undergraduate students taking courses in biomedical sciences, biological sciences, and medicine.

For professionals who need to navigate the law, not practice it.

It will also be useful to anyone with an interested in the ethics of biological and biomedical science, including science journalists and reporters, who want to inform themselves about Author: John A. Bryant. Biomedicine and Beatitude: An Introduction to Catholic Bioethics (Catholic Moral Thought) [Nicanor Pier Giorgio Austriaco] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.

Introduction to bioethics

*Engages contemporary moral questions raised by biology and medicine from a sound Catholic perspective* How are the patient. The Anscombe Bioethics Centre (originally known as the Linacre Centre for Healthcare Ethics) is a Roman Catholic academic institute that engages with the moral questions arising in clinical practice and biomedical research.

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