The term comes from "Byzantium", the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantine's capital. This older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts. Imperium Romanum, Imperium Romanorum; Greek:
Cooperation Summary Humans, like all animals, form cooperative groups to compete for limited resources. All life is ultimately competitive, because the natural tendency of any population is to explode, although it is kept in check by the limited food supply and other factors.
Because there are more animals than food, animals must compete to survive. In situations where the food supply is somehow sufficient, deadly competition falls.
Liberals therefore advocate the creation of a sustainable economy, where the population is kept constant through birth control and resources are used no faster than they can be replaced. The result will be a more cooperative and civil society.
Argument In the debate over what type of society is best, conservatives generally favor more competitive societies, whereas liberals favor more cooperative ones.
Let's attempt to see which side is correct, by reviewing the fundamentals of competition and cooperation: The origins of competition Perhaps the first thing to note is that all life is ultimately competitive.
For many centuries, biologists have known that the natural tendency of the animal population is to explode, but the limited Essay on survival skills supply keeps it in check. There are also other limiting factors, like space, climate, resources, etc.
Because there are more creatures than food, this means that some will starve to death. Thus, in order to survive, animals must compete for food, killing each other if need be. It's implications, however, have been deeply controversial.
The 18th century economist Thomas Malthus argued that giving more food to the poor was self-defeating, since it would only expand their population and create more of the same hunger and misery that welfare was designed to alleviate.
Malthus therefore argued that welfare programs should be halted. Malthus' proposal sparked a bitter political debate -- the poor charged that he was heartless, while the rich congratulated him for applying science to the issue of welfare.
Interestingly, the controversy itself was indicative of the class warfare that rages for society's limited resources. Likewise, Charles Darwin found the concept of deadly competition important for developing his theories of natural selection and survival of the fittest.
Darwin theorized that if animals must compete to survive, then the winners would be those with the strongest traits, which would then be passed on to their offspring. Meanwhile, those with weaker traits would be killed before they could breed, and would be dropped from the gene pool.
It is important to note that even if you don't believe in evolution, natural selection indisputably occurs in all other competitive systems. These range from individual firms competing on the free market to individual workers competing for job promotions.
Indeed, the fact that natural selection occurs everywhere else is a strong argument that it occurs in biology as well. Natural selection has developed in humans a natural desire to compete. Those with non-competitive natures would have lost their struggle for survival, and disappeared from the gene pool a long time ago.
On the other hand, those with an overly intense desire to compete would have become dead heroes, and likewise failed to pass on their traits. Thus, a reasonable attraction to competition is both healthy and natural. The competitiveness of humanity has worked itself even into our most basic definitions of the social sciences.
Economics is formally defined as the study of "the efficient allocation of scarce resources among competing uses. The origins of cooperation But imagine what it would be like to live in a society where each individual competes against everyone else, without any cooperation at all.
You wouldn't dare walk outside, for your neighbor could shoot you and take all your property. Nor could you rely on the police to protect you, since law enforcement is a form of social cooperation. In a perfectly competitive world, only the strongest or luckiest would survive.
But what if you were fortunate enough to be one of the strongest or luckiest?
After killing off most of society, you would only find yourself among survivors who were highly competent killers themselves, and the terror would start anew. And even if you emerged the final victor, the rewards would be slight how rich and satisfied can you be when you're a hermit? All species avoid this bleak scenario through cooperation.
Among humans, cooperation can be divided into two categories: An example of friendly cooperation is the alliances you join to compete more efficiently against other individuals or groups.Survival Skills Essay Survival knives are really one on the most powerful outdoor "tools" available.
I think, in fact, which are one of the most important little your outdoor equipment. Lots of people "survival" truly applies just because a survival knife truly helps with your survival outdoors. Survival Skills By Maddi Pearson During the great depression many people were out of jobs.
These people had to find another way to survive or support their. - A life or death survival situation is not a scenario that crosses people’s mind very often, but acquiring some basic survival skills could save lives.
Survival skills include a range of situations from lost while hiking, to a plane crash, and even to the dreaded zombie apocalypse. Fantastic, Louis. This essay seems like it has actually been a long time coming – I’m glad someone raised the issues as eloquently and knowledgeably as you.
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If you are like most students, college admissions essays push you into the scary, uncharted territory of writing about yourself.
It doesn’t help that you feel unprepared to craft this unfamiliar type of personal essay or that you also feel.