What the Board expects you to know: Risk factors in the development of addiction, including genetic vulnerability, stress, personality, family influences and peers.
References and Further Reading 1. Behaviorists and Behaviorisms Behaviorism, notoriously, came in various sorts and has been, also notoriously, subject to variant sortings: Views commonly styled "behavioristic" share various of the following marks: Notably, Gilbert Ryle, Ludwig Wittgenstein, and followers in the "ordinary language" tradition of analytic philosophy, while, for the most part, regarding behavioral scientific hopes as vain, hold views that are, in other respects, strongly behavioristic.
Not surprisingly, these thinkers often downplay the "behaviorist" label themselves to distinguish themselves from their scientific behaviorist cousins.
Nevertheless, in philosophical discussions, they are commonly counted "behaviorists": Wilhelm Wundt, Ivan Pavlov Wundt is often called "the father of experimental psychology.
The science of experience he envisaged was supposed to be chemistry like: Data were to be acquired and analyzed by trained introspective Observers. While the analysis of experience was supposed to be a self-contained enterprise, Wundt -- originally trained as a physiologist -- fully expected that the structures and Essay on behaviourist approach introspective analysis uncovered in experience would parallel structures and processes physiological investigation revealed in the central nervous system.
Introspectionism, as the approach was called, soon spread, and laboratories sprang up in the United States and elsewhere, aiming "to investigate the facts of consciousness, its combinations and relations," so as to "ultimately discover the laws which govern these relations and combinations" Wundt The approach failed primarily due to the unreliability of introspective Observation.
Introspective "experimental" results were not reliably reproducible by outside laboratories: Observers from different laboratories failed to agree, for instance, in their Observation or failure to Observe imageless thoughts to cite one notorious controversy.
In his famous experiments Pavlov paired presentations to dogs of an unconditioned stimulus food with an initially neutral stimulus a ringing bell. After a number of such joint presentations, the unconditional response to food salivation becomes conditioned to the bell: Edward Thorndike, in a similar methodological vein, proposed "that psychology may be, at least in part, as independent of introspection as physics" Thorndike In experimental investigations of puzzle-solving by cats and other animals, he established that speed of solution increased gradually as a result of previous puzzle exposure.
Such results, he maintained, support the hypothesis that learning is a result of habits formed through trial and error, and Thorndike formulated "laws of behavior," describing habit formation processes, based on these results. Of several responses made to the same situation, those which are accompanied or closely followed by satisfaction to the animal will, other things being equal, be more firmly connected with the situation, so that, when it recurs, they will be more likely to recur; those which are accompanied or closely followed by discomfort to the animal will, other things being equal, have their connections with that situation weakened, so that, when it recurs, they will be less likely to occur.
The greater the satisfaction or discomfort, the greater the strengthening or weakening of the bond. Thorndike In short, rewarded responses tend to be reinforced and punished responses eliminated.
His methodological innovations particularly his "puzzle-box" facilitated objective quantitative data collection and provided a paradigm for Behaviorist research methods to follow especially the "Skinner box".
Early Behaviorism Watson coined the term "Behaviorism" as a name for his proposal to revolutionize the study of human psychology in order to put it on a firm experimental footing. In opposition to received philosophical opinion, to the dominant Introspectionist approach in psychology, and many said to common sense, Watson advocated a radically different approach.
Where received "wisdom" took conscious experience to be the very stuff of minds and hence the only appropriate object of psychological investigation, Watson advocated an approach that led, scientifically, "to the ignoring of consciousness" and the illegitimacy of "making consciousness a special object of observation.
Consequently, Watson -- trained as an "animal man" himself -- proposed, "making behavior, not consciousness, the objective point of our attack" as the key to putting the study of human psychology on a similar scientific footing. Key it proved to be. Introspectionism languished, behaviorism flourished, and considerable areas of our understanding of human psychology particularly with regard to learning came within the purview of experimental investigation along broadly behavioristic lines.
Watson is, consequently, loath to hypothesize central processes, going so far as to speculate that thought occurs in the vocal tract, and is -- quite literally -- subaudible talking to oneself Watson Although both accepted the S-R framework as basic, Tolman and Hull were far more willing than Watson to hypothesize internal mechanisms or "intervening variables" mediating the S-R connection.
In this regard their work may be considered precursory to cognitivism, and each touches on important philosophical issues besides.
For Tolman, stimuli play a cognitive role as signals to the organism, leading to the formation of "cognitive maps" and to "latent learning" in the absence of reinforcement.
Overall, The stimuli which are allowed in are not connected by just simple one-to-one switches to the outgoing responses. Rather the incoming impulses are usually worked over and elaborated in the central control room into a tentative cognitive-like map of the environment.
And it is this tentative map, indicating routes and paths and environmental relationships, which finally determines what responses, if any, the animal will finally make.
Attributes of, and relations among, these variables are what the postulates describe: Expected gains in predictive-explanatory scope and precision were not achieved and, with hindsight, it is easy to see that such an elaborate theoretical superstructure, built on such slight observational-experimental foundations, was bound to fall.
In operant conditioning, operants followed by reinforcement e. By increasingly judicious reinforcement of increasingly close approximations, complex behavioral sequences are shaped. Prolonged absence of reinforcement leads to extinction of the response. Many original and important Skinnerian findings -- e.
Skinner notes the similarity of operant behavioral conditioning to natural evolutionary selection: By "dismissing mental states and processes," Skinner maintains, radical behaviorism "directs attention to theThe Behaviourist approach derived from the dissatisfaction at the time with the psychoanalytical school of thinking.
at the time of Behaviourism is said to be a scientific approach, being based predominantly on observable behaviour and facts – and only crediting these. Cybernetics is a transdisciplinary approach for exploring regulatory systems—their structures, constraints, and possibilities.
Norbert Wiener defined cybernetics in as "the scientific study of control and communication in the animal and the machine." In the 21st century, the term is often used in a rather loose way to imply "control of any .
IMPORTANT: MOST APPLICATIONS TO JOIN THE POSITIVE GUNDOG GROUP ARE TURNED DOWN.. IF YOU WISH TO JOIN THE GROUP, PLEASE READ CAREFULLY. This is an information page for members of the Positive Gundogs Facebook Group and for those who would like to join.
Language Development in Children Essay - Language Development in Children Language is a multifaceted instrument used to communicate an unbelievable number of . - The aim of this essay is to describe and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the behaviourist approach in terms of ability to explain behaviour.
This essay will briefly outline the historical development of the behaviourist approach and include psychologists ranging from Watson to Bandura. Published: Mon, 5 Dec Learning is very complex and there are many theories relate to how students learn. The different theories demonstrate the .