This period saw the transition from a relatively rigid system of legal proofs which predetermined when there was sufficient evidence for a condemnation, to a system based on the free evaluation of the evidence by either professional judges or lay jurors.
Although Bernheim did not explicitly talk about virtue, the article shows that his Lehrbuch nonetheless considers self-distanciation a matter of virtuous behavior, targeted at an aim that may not be fully realizable, but ought to be pursued with all possible vigor.
Focusing on some of its most important spokespeople, the paper shows that they start from the historicist presupposition that distance can in principle be overcome by a reconstruction of the original intentions of the framers of the Constitution.
With the help of Hans-Georg Gadamer, who explicitly based his philosophical hermeneutics on the notion of distance, this presupposition will be criticized.
The paper concludes that the originalist and hermeneuticist positions do not mutually exclude each other, but can be synthesized if they are seen as different questions about the same text. The meaning of the Constitution is therefore not given but is dependent on the direction of the questions asked by the interpreter.
From this question-dependency of meaning it follows that interpretation follows the law of acoustics: The spatial metaphor of distance at work in this intuition is thought to provide the basis for the epistemological model appropriate for understanding the nature of historical knowledge.
This results in two claims: This essay discusses the pros and cons of these two claims. It argues that the two claims are indeed the best way to begin our analysis of the relationship between the past and the historical text or representation.
However, we cannot afford to stop there; indeed, we must ask ourselves where the associations we have with the metaphor of temporal distance may, in the end, be misleading.
This will enable us to recognize that the notion of distance will, finally, have to yield its prerogatives to that of the notion of function. Historical writing is functionalist in the sense that the historical text is a substitute for the past discussed in it.
That is its function. The intentionalist alternative to essentialism elaborated in this article successfully clarifies and avoids many standard problems with anachronism. Myth in History, Philosophy of History as Myth: It attempts to show that their conceptions of myth are closely related to their respective assumptions concerning the historical significance of myth and regarding the sense of history more generally.
Historians often say that the micro level casts light on the macro level. In this essay, I propose and clarify six interpretive norms to guide micro-to-macro inferences.
I focus on marginal groups and monsters. These are popular cases in social and cultural histories, and yet seem to be unpromising candidates for generalization. Marginal groups are dismissed by the majority as inferior or ill-fitting; their lives seem intelligible but negligible. Monsters, on the other hand, are somehow incomprehensible to society and treated as such.
These will contest our conception of a macro claim. Second, I identify four risks in making such inferences—and clarify how norms of coherence, challenge, restraint, connection, provocation, and contextualization can manage those risks.
My strategy is to analyze two case studies, by Richard Cobb, about a band of violent bandits and a semi-literate provincial terrorist in revolutionary France. Published inthese studies show Cobb to be an inventive and idiosyncratic historian, who created new angles for studying the micro level and complicated them with his autobiography.
Uncertainty is thus inevitable for intellectual historians. But accepting uncertainty is not enough: Then we should report our degree of certainty in our claims.
When we answer empirical questions in intellectual history, we are not telling our readers what happened: For intellectual historians, then, uncertainty is subjective, as discussed by Keynes and Collingwood; the paper thus explores three differences between subjective and objective uncertainty.
Having outlined the theoretical basis of uncertainty, the paper then offers examples from actual research: The concept, however, has remained entirely unexplored in the discipline of history. Although numerous British historians have noted the prominent position of acceleration in the late-Victorian and Edwardian imagination, these observations have never expanded beyond the realm of rhetorical flourish.
The present paper attempts to build a two-way interdisciplinary bridge between British political history and the theories of social acceleration that have been posited in the social sciences, arguing that both British political historians and acceleration theorists have much to gain from further dialogue.
How Ideas of Feudalism and Secularization Govern the Politics of Time History and Theory 50 OctoberDavis argues that the familiar periodization dividing European history into medieval and modern phases disguises a claim to power as a historical fact. Periodization thus furnishes one of the most durable conceptual foundations for the usurpation of liberty and the abuse of power.
Three limitations of this book are worth mentioning.To the left you see a zoom in of a PCA which Dienekes produced for a post, Structure in West Asian Indo-European groups.
The focus of the post is the peculiar genetic relationship of Kurds, an. Search the world's most comprehensive index of full-text books.
My library. A 30 page research paper that discusses genocide, focusing primarily on the details of the Armenian Genocide of and Peter Balakian's book on this subject, The Burning Tigris (). Balakian's analysis of the Armenian Genocide addresses several pertinent themes that are applicable to the overall topic of genocide.
"Humans have been slaughtering each other for thousands of years, but only now is the field of genocide studies blooming. This grim account of history notes remarkable parallels in the patterns of mass slaughter, from Carthage to barnweddingvt.com references to the .
Below is an essay on "Armenian Genocide" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples. Thesis: Before the problem of the Armenian genocide the Armenian and the Turk lived in harmony as second class citizen. Indirect Reference and the Creation of Distance in History.
EUGEN ZELEŇÁK. History and Theory, Theme Issue 50 (December ), In his discussion of David Hume and historical distance, Mark Salber Phillips points out that in the process of distance-creation there is a distinction between something occurring “within the text” and “outside the text.”.