Ultraviolet and Visible Spectra Reactions of Carboxylic Acids Carboxylic acids undergo reactions to produce derivatives of the acid. The most common derivatives formed are esters, acid halides, acid anhydrides, and amides. Esters are compounds formed by the reaction of carboxylic acids with alcohols, and they have a general structural formula of:
Contributors There are three major classifications of substances known as acids or bases. Later, two more sophisticated and general theories were proposed.
The Lewis theory is discussed elsewhere. Formation of the hydronium ion equation: An Arrhenius base is a compound that increases the concentration of OH- ions that are present when added to water. Note Arrhenius acids are substances which produce hydrogen ions in solution.
Arrhenius bases are substances which produce hydroxide ions in solution. The hydrogen ion in aqueous solution is no more than a proton, a bare nucleus.
Although it carries only a single unit of positive charge, this charge is concentrated into a volume of space that is only about a hundred-millionth as large as the volume occupied by the smallest atom. Think of a pebble sitting in the middle of a sports stadium!
Limitations to the Arrhenius Theory The Arrhenius theory has many more limitations than the other two theories. Hydrochloric acid is neutralized by both sodium hydroxide solution and ammonia solution.
In both cases, you get a colourless solution which you can crystallize to get a white salt - either sodium chloride or ammonium chloride. These are clearly very similar reactions. The full equations are: However, in the ammonia case, there are no hydroxide ions!
Nevertheless, there are hydroxide ions there, and we can squeeze this into the Arrhenius theory. However, this same reaction also happens between ammonia gas and hydrogen chloride gas. Because of this shortcoming, later theories sought to better explain the behavior of acids and bases in a new manner.
Consider the following chemical equation:Neutralization occurs not only with strong acid and strong base reactions, but also with weak acids and bases. The following is a table of some common weak acids and weak bases. name and give the formula and uses of some common acids and bases identify whether a substance is acting as a Brønsted–Lowry acid, base or neither in a given chemical reaction identify whether a substance is acting as a Lewis acid, base or neither in a given chemical reaction.
Solid Acids and Bases: Their Catalytic Properties reviews developments in the studies of acidic and basic properties of solids, including the efficacy and special characteristics of solid acid and base catalysts. This book discusses the determination of basic and acidic properties on solid surfaces and relationship between acid strength and.
Salts of weak acids and bases form buffer systems. A buffer system consists of an equilibrium between an acidic species and a basic species.
Note the "equilibrium", you can't just dump HCl and NaOH together and expect buffering, because neutralization will occur and the acidic species and the basic species won't be at an equilibrium.
Acids and bases. Acids are what make foods taste sour. In fact, the name comes from the Latin word for sour, acidus. Bases are substances that neutralize acids. An acid is any molecule that can easily lose a hydrogen ion.
A base is a molecule that accepts a hydrogen ion. The Lewis model of acids and bases proposes that an acid is an electron pair acceptor while a base is an electron pair donor. This model of acidity and basicity broadens the characterization of acid-base reactions to include reactions like the following which do not involve any hydrogen transfers.